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Understanding Shot Peening

As a vital mechanic process, shot peening is used in a wide array of different industries. The idea behind is similar to traditional procedures used by blacksmiths. They hammered metals continuously to improve the metals’ strength. Shot peening machine helps to enhance the fatigue durability of metal items. The optimal technique is to have hardened outcomes. Shot peening utilizes small shots to have tiny plastic deformations on the surfaces of metal items. When it comes to hardening metal surfaces, there is perhaps o better process like shot peening.

What is shot peening?

Also referred to as shot blasting, shot peening causes the metal object to acquire a more relaxed state by shaking the meta grains on the items. Henceforth, the surface layer of the object counteracts tensile stress and bars from cracking. It is a state-of-the-art technology that cleans, deburrs, and improves the appearance of metal objects. The shot peening machine also has the reputation of improving the life span of machinery components like shafts, housings, and gears. Shot peening is a widely accepted and used methodology in a wide array of industrial sectors.

Increasing fatigue strength

The process of exerting force on metal components is a well-known technique used in a wide array of industries. Shot peening is the up-to-date, modern version of the traditional method that blacksmiths have been using for years. Shot peening is utilized widely for metal components like shafts, bearings, gear teeth, and so on. Furthermore, shot peening is also used to enhance and extend the durability of metal components.

There is no technique like shot peening that equals the strength and power concerning metals.  Shot peening is the process that makes items, like vehicles, machine parts, aircraft wings, and other industrial products long-lasting and durable. Apart from improving and increasing fatigue strength, shot peening also enhances the aesthetic value of metal parts.

The functioning mechanism of shot peening

Shot peening machine strikes a surface with a shot, which can be ceramic, metallic, or glass particles. The machine exerts adequate force to yield plastic deformation. When shots are exerted one after the other, the metal object surface gets an impact generating multiple identifications. This results in the object getting covered by extensive stressed layers on the surface of the metal object. The overall working principle of a shot peening machine is simple and easy to understand.

Shot peening methods

Usually, shot peening is exercised using centrifugal blast wheels or air blast systems. The centrifugal blast wheels utilize high-speed paddle wheels that motivate the peening media. Centrifugal force is used to adjust the media entrance location and the release time of the media. On the other hand, air blast systems utilize high-pressure air to exert the shots via a nozzle. Wet peening, laser peening, and ultrasonic peening are other techniques of shot peening machines that don’t incorporate the use of media.

Shot peening media

Glass beads, cut wire, ceramic beads, and cast steel shots are some of the shot peening media. Out of all the peening media, the cut wire shot is the most favored one since the spherical shape is maintained when it degrades. This is unlike cast shots that break into small pieces and negatively impact the workpiece. Moreover, cut wire is a more popular and favored shot peening machine media as its durability is five times more than cast shots. Cut wire media is also more cost-effective than other peening media used.

Why use shot peening?

One of the primary benefits of using a shot peening machine is to extend the durability of metal components by creating small plastic deformities resulting in a layer increasing resistance to impacts like corrosion fatigue, cavitation erosion, stress corrosion, and so on. Shot peening also helps in creating resistance from developing cracks. The common reasons for using shot peening machines are:

  •   Enhances and increases the fatigue strength of industrial components
  •   Enhances the durability of equipment like shafts and bearings
  •   Increases the strength of gear teeth bending
  •   Improves the durability and strength of metals
  •   Eliminates the chances of problems like fretting, galling, cracking, and so on

Shot peening machines are beneficial to industrial components, especially heavy-duty ones.

Shot blasting versus shot peening

One of the major differences between shot blasting and shot peening is the end outcome. Shot blasting utilizes the use of abrasives to clean and smoothen the surface and prepare for processing. On the other hand, shot peening makes use of the metal plasticity to extend the durability of the metal components. In the case of shot blasting, the shot choices depend on the application. However, a shot peening machine utilizes glass shots, ceramic shots, and steel shots. Shot peening is a more efficient and cost-effective technique for improving the strength of metal parts and also making the metal component reusable.

Applications of shot peening machine

Shot peening is used across a wide array of industries to improve the surface of metal components, like automotive, aerospace, and medical equipment. Some of the components include:

  •   Camshafts
  •   Gear parts
  •   Springs
  •   Drill bits
  •   Pistons
  •   Connecting rods
  •   Gearwheels
  •   Crankshafts
  •   Landing gear
  •   Turbine blades
  •   Propeller shafts
  •   Compressor blades
  •   Landing gear
  •   Epidural probes

Apart from the above-mentioned applications, shot peening machines are also used for removing sand in descaling, foundries, decoding, and surface finishing for castings used in cylinder heads and engine blocks. Depending on the coverage, intensity, shot quality, and material, shot peening can improve the durability of metal components by almost 100%. Furthermore, shot peening can also be utilized for cosmetic purposes.


Enhancing strength and fatigue resistance are the two most common benefits of a shot peening machine. One of the highlighting aspects of the shot peening technique is more effective than any other method and it is cost-effective as well. Extensive research and quality controls assure effectiveness. Several manufacturing processes, like welding, plating, hardening, etc., give rise to a reduction of fatigue strength. Such manufacturing processes play a vital role, they gradually decrease the durability of the components. This is why shot peening has emerged as the industry standard and is used around the world. when it comes to restoring and maintaining durability, safety, and strength of industrial, heavy-duty metal parts, shot penning is top-notch.